What are the effects of a large, permanent military upon the political economy and society of the United States? What are the effects on other countries of their militaries? What are the effects on local societies of US military bases? What is the role of the various militaries in the history of colonial/neo-colonial control, and in contemporary empire? How are military establishments and violence linked to ethno-national, class and other social movements—and to the repression and domination of such movements? What does a military do to/for the people who staff it? What are the implications of militarization in such areas as gender, human rights, the environment, sports, knowledge and learning? What is the role of militias, “para-militaries”, and guerrillas? What methods can social or popular movements use in their attempts to subvert, paralyze, eliminate or otherwise struggle against militaries, military bases, and weapons? Texts may include, among others: A. Bacevich, Washington Rules: America's Path to Permanent War ; C. Johnson, The Sorrows of Empire ; C. Enloe, Nimo's War, Emma's War ; K. Lutz, Homefront: A Military City and the American Twentieth Century ; K. McCaffrey, Military Power and Popular Protest: The U.S. Navy in Vieques, Puerto Rico ; J. Horgan The End of War.